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AmigaOne - Linux - Debian Woody Install

The AmigaOne Debian Woody Linux Install Guide that was prepared by Ross Vumbaca in 2003 is comprehensive and easy to follow but hasn't been updated to include the changes that have occurred with the AmigaOne since then. We have therefore reproduced a condensed version here that includes the appropriate modifications. We recommend that you read each step carefully and don't respond intuitively to what is displayed on the screen.
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Assumptions

  1. These instructions only apply where Debian Woody is being installed on a separate hard disk and should NOT be used where it is to be installed on the same hard disk as AmigaOS 4.0.
    For instructions on how to install Debian Woody in a dual booting you should follow these instructions instead.

  2. You have successfully configured the U-Boot parameters as detailed in the section on U-Boot.

  3. You will be using CDs rather than interactively over the Internet. This means that you will need a set of the 7 CDs that comprise the Woody distribution. They can no longer be downloaded, but library copies of the distro can be obtained from Amiga Auckland's Librarian and these can be freely copied.

Pre-requisites

The pre-requisites that we have identified for installing Woody are:

  • AmigaOne Installer CD for Debian Linux with Kernel 2.4.26 or later
    The version delivered with the AmigaOne installs Woody using the 2.4.19 and is too old - the latest version can be downloaded from http://members.optusnet.com.au/amigaone/.

  • Disk 1 from the Debian Woody Linux for PPC distribution
    This should also have been delivered with the AmigaOne. Until recently, it and the other 6 CDs that make up the distribution could be freely downloaded from any of the sites that are listed at http://www.debian.org, but since the release of 'Sarge' they no longer appear to be available. The AmigaOne Debian Linux Install CD is hard-coded for Woody, and as yet there is no version for Sarge, but it is relatively simple to upgrade to Sarge afterwards.

  • U-Boot environment variables must be set up
    The following environment variables must be set up before commencing the installation:
    • autostart yes
    • bootcmd diskboot
    • bootdelay 5
    • bootdevice ....
    • bootargs root=/dev.......
    See the U-Boot Environment Variables section for further information as to what values should be used for 'bootdevice' and 'bootargs'.

  • Before you start it is important to decide what partitions you require for your hard disk(s) and how big those partitions need to be. Debian requires the following:

    1. Prep Partition (Separate disk only - not required for same disk)
      - 15-20MB - contains the kernel image for booting Linux.

    2. Linux Root Partition
      - 1-10GB (or more) - contains the Linux Operating System, installed packages, and optionally data files.

    3. Linux Swap Partition
      - at least 1GB - contains the Linux page file and as a general rule should be 2-4 times the size of your main memory allocated to Linux. Since there seem to be problems allocating more than 800MB of which typically 32MB is static and used for graphics memory, it should never need to be more than 2GB.

    4. Linux User Partition (Optional and not part of the install process - done later)
      - as large or small as you wish - contains all user data files rather than store them in the Linux Root Partition. This can be a useful way to localise possible file system corruption problems when fsck does it scan.

    If you are installing to a separate disk, the first three can be created during the install process. If you are installing to the same disk as AmigaOS 4.0, the required partitions must be created using Media Toolbox prior to running the Debian install.

  • Obtain the vertical and horizontal scan rates, and maximum resolution specifications for your monitor, and record it on the Install Guide you printed above for future reference. You will need this during your X-Windows setup.

  • If you plan on connecting to a Network, you should figure out your IP address and any other values such as IP Gateway, SSH etc. If you wish you can bypass this step during the install process and perform it later.

  • During the install process it will create the "root" user, and give you the option of creating a "user" account. We recommend that you create yourself a user account during the installation process. If you are planning to upgrade to Sarge (also recommended) additional user accounts are mandatory.

  • During the install process it will want to configure your keyboard, mouse, languages etc. you should choose the US option to get the $ sign etc matching the keyboard.

Installing Debian Linux

  1. Turn on your AmigaOne and as soon as the U-Boot Initialisation screen appears, press <Esc>. As soon as U-Boot has checked the IDE and SiL devices, it will stop with a "]" prompt.

  2. Insert the AmigaOne Installer CD in your CDROM drive.

  3. At the prompt, type ide reset to force U-Boot to re-check all of the IDE and SiL devices and stop with a "]" prompt. Above that it will show all of the devices found, one of which will be the CDROM drive containing the CD you just inserted. Take note of the "Device #" down the left hand side next to the CDROM entry. You will need this device number in the next step.

  4. You are now ready to boot from the CDROM where "#" is the device number from step 3.
    - If your CDROM is connected to the VIA 686 controller (standard), then at the prompt, type
          diskboot 500000 #:0 0
    - If your CDROM is connected to the SiL0680 controller, then at the prompt, type
          diskboot 500000 #:0 1

  5. The CDROM will load for a short while as it boots Debian Woody from the CDROM.

  6. If you have a Voodoo 3/4/5, ATI Radeon or ATI Rage 128 video card, you will be asked to "Choose The Language". Use the down arrow key to select en for English if that is the desired language and press <Enter>. If you do not have one of the above cards it assumes basic VGA and you will not get this option.

  7. After selecting the language (assuming English was selected otherwise this screen is not displayed) you will be asked to "Choose Language Variant" and English (United States) will be highlighted. Select the variant you desire and press <Enter>.

  8. You will be greeted with a welcome message. Press <Enter> to continue.

  9. The installation of Debian is made up of a number of steps. Each step of the way, you can proceed to the next step, or you can step back, or take alternative choices. The most logical next step is always shown first.

  10. Next : Configure the Keyboard
    Press <Enter> to configure the keyboard. Note that you can reconfigure the keyboard later by running "dpkg-reconfigure console-data" from a Shell. Select qwerty/us at the top the list, unless you have a non-US keyboard, and press <Enter>.

  11. Next : Partition your Hard Disk
    Press <Enter> to select this option. This will start the "cfdisk" program that enables you to partition your hard disk. When it loads, the existing partitions (if any) are listed together with details about their type, size, etc at the top of the screen, with a number of options displayed at the bottom of the screen. On a factory new hard disk all you should see is just "Free Space". You need to set up three partitions - a boot partition, a root partition, and a swap partition as discussed in the pre-requisites section.

    To use the program, use the <left> and <right> cursor keys to highlight an option, and <Enter> to choose an option. DO NOT use the <up> and <down> cursor keys to choose an option, <up> and <down> are used to highlight partitions on the hard disk (on a clean hard disk there will be none). In accordance with the environment variables that we set in U-Boot previously, you should make the boot partition come first, followed by the root partition, and then the swap partition.

    • To create the PPC Prep Boot (boot) partition:
      • Press <right> to highlight "New" and press <Enter>.
      • Select "Primary" and press <Enter>.
      • Enter the size for the Boot partition in Megabytes and press <Enter>.
      • Select "Beginning" when asked for the position and press <Enter>.
      • The partition will now show as "hda1" at the top section of the screen.
      • Press <right> to highlight "Type" and press <Enter>.
      • Overtype the filesystem type at the bottom left-hand corner with "41" for PPC Prep Boot, and press <Enter>.
    • To create the Linux (root) partition:
      • Press <down> on the cursor keys to select the free space
      • Press <right> to highlight "New" and press <Enter>.
      • Select "Primary" and press <Enter>.
      • Enter the size for the Root partition in Megabytes and press <Enter>.
      • Select "Beginning" when asked for the position and press <Enter>.
      • The partition will now show as "hda2" at the top section of the screen.
      • The filesystem type will default to "83" for Linux, so don't change it.
    • To create the Linux Swap partition:
      • Press <down> on the cursor keys to select the free space
      • Press <right> to highlight "New" and press <Enter>.
      • Select "Primary" and press <Enter>.
      • Enter the size for the Swap partition in Megabytes and press <Enter>.
      • Select "Beginning" when asked for the position and press <Enter>.
      • The partition will now show as "hda3" at the top section of the screen.
      • Press <right> to highlight "Type" and press <Enter>.
      • Overtype the filesystem type at the bottom left-hand corner with "82" for Linux Swap, and press <Enter>.
    • To save the changes:
      • Press <right> to highlight "Write" and press <Enter>.
      • Press <right> again to highlight "Quit" and press <Enter>.

  12. Next : Initialize and Activate a Swap Partition
    Press <Enter> to select this option. You are then asked if the /dev/hda3 partition should be scanned for bad blocks. Simply choose the <No> option, which will already be selected for you. Press <Enter> again when you’re asked if you’re sure you want to format /dev/hda3 as the swap partition.

  13. Next : Initialize a Linux Partition
    Press <Enter> to select this option. You will be asked if you want to use "Ext2" which is the traditional GNU/Linux filesystem, or "Ext3" which is the next generation of Ext2, which supports journaling, making it a lot more reliable. Ext3 is the recommended choice. As with the initialising of the swap partition, when you are asked if you want to perform a bad block scan, select <No>, and if you are sure you want to initialise /dev/hda2 – select <Yes>. Some text describing the initialisation process will appear on screen as the partition is initialised. Once the initialisation is complete, you will be asked if you wish to mount the partition as your Root Filesystem. Select <Yes>.

  14. Next : Install Kernel and Driver Modules
    You are now up to the stage of installing the kernel driver modules to your hard drive. The AmigaOne Installer CD should still be in your CD-ROM drive, so press <Enter> to select this option. Next you will be asked which medium you want to install from, press <Enter> to select cdrom. If you have more than one CD-ROM drive, you will be asked which CD-ROM drive to look in, select the appropriate one, and press <Enter> to continue. A message will appear asking you to "Please place the first Debian CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive" – ignore this message and press <Enter> to continue. You will now be asked if you want the installer to look for the modules on the CD ("list"), or to enter it manually. Select list (it will probably already be selected), and press <Enter> to continue. You will be asked to select the directory from a list of one item, simply press <Enter> again to proceed. Several screens will flash by and then you will be returned to the Installation Menu. The kernel modules have now been installed.

  15. Next : Configure Device Driver Modules
    You now have to select which modules (if any) you wish to use. Press <Enter> to select that option, and press <Enter> again when "Note about loaded drivers" appears. You now have a list where you can select any modules (drivers) that you would like your Linux system to load on boot up. If you do not wish to load any modules, simply press <Enter> to select Exit. Otherwise, scroll down with the cursor keys and select any modules that you would like, such as modules for your sound card, or modules for your network card. Remember that "module" is just another word for a hardware driver.

  16. If you have a Creative Sound Blaster Live sound card, select kernel/sound/pci/emu10k1 and then select snd-emu10k1. Accept <Yes> to the install message by pressing <Enter>, and when it asks you to "Enter Command-Line Arguments", simply press <Enter>, and then press <Enter> to continue when asked. You will then need to select Exit and press <Enter> to return to the module list.

  17. If you have a Creative Vibra/PCI128 sound card, select kernel/sound/pci and then select snd-ens1371. Accept <Yes> to the install message by pressing <Enter>, and when it asks you to "Enter Command-Line Arguments", simply press <Enter>, and then press <Enter> to continue when asked. You will then need to select Exit and press <Enter> to return to the module list.

  18. After loading the appropriate sound card module, select kernel/sound/acore/oss and then select snd-pcm-oss and repeat the steps above. There are also modules for other hardware that more advanced users may make use of. The step of configuring modules can be repeated in future at any time on your Debian Linux system, by entering "modconf" at a shell prompt. When you have completed the module configuration step, select Exit and press <Enter> to return to the Installation Menu.

  19. Next : Configure the Network
    Press <Enter> to select that option. You will be asked to choose a host name for your machine. Think of a unique, short name for your machine to use on the network. If you’re not sure what to use, you could use AmigaOne. You will then be asked if you wish to use DHCP or BOOTP to automatically configure the interface. If you have a DHCP server available on your network, select <Yes>, otherwise select <No>. If you select not to use DHCP, you will then have to manually enter an IP address, subnet mask, name server IP address for the network, Domain Server name and DNS Server Address. (Windows machines with internet connection sharing, home routers, and cable modem internet, all typically offer DHCP services. If you are unsure of what to do, ask someone that is familiar with your network).

    If you are not using a network at all, then after selecting to not use DHCP, you can enter any values that you please, but it is best to use the default IP address of "192.168.1.1", subnet mask of "255.255.255.0" and no name server address (use backspace to delete the default value of "192.168.1.2"), no Domain Server Name and no DNS Server address. These can be changed in future if you connect your AmigaOne to a network.

  20. Next : Install the Base System
    Press <Enter> to select this option. Next you will be asked which medium you want to install from, press <Enter> to select cdrom. If you have more than one CD-ROM drive, you will be asked which CD-ROM drive to look in, select the appropriate one, and press <Enter> to continue. A message will appear asking you to "Please place the first Debian CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive", so you should remove the "AmigaOne Installer CD", and insert the first Debian CD-ROM into your CD-ROM drive, and press <Enter> to continue. The CD will be scanned, and you will be asked to select where you want to install from. You will be given only one choice (which refers to the /instmnt directory on the CD), press <Enter> again to proceed. The system will then begin installing the base system, with the process taking several minutes, depending on the speed of your CD-ROM drive, hard disk, and CPU.

  21. Next : Make System Bootable
    This step will copy the Linux kernel to the boot partition. Press <Enter> to continue. The installer will check that a boot partition has been defined and that it is large enough. If these two conditions are not satisfied, an explaining the problem will appear.

  22. Next : Reboot the System
    After the kernel has been copied to the boot partition, press <Enter> to reboot the system. The AmigaOne will reboot after a short while.

  23. As long as the U-Boot environment variables have been set up correctly, your AmigaOne will automatically boot into Linux.

  24. Your AmigaOne should now boot from the hard drive and the first screen that you see should say "Congratulations, you have successfully installed Debian!". Note that if you have chosen an 800x600 resolution the background to the screen may be distorted - this does not matter and can be put right later. You can rerun the base system configuration at any time by logging in as "root&" at a Shell and typing /usr/sbin/base-config. Press <Enter> to continue with the installation.

  25. The next screen Time Zone Configuration displays the hardware clock details and asks
    "Is the hardware clock set to GMT?"
    Select <No> and press <Enter>.
    "What area do you live in?"
    For New Zealand you must select Pacific Ocean and press <Enter>.
    It will then give you a list of places to choose - select Auckland and press <Enter>.

  26. The next screen Password setup discusses password rules and asks
    "Shall I enable md5 passwords?".
    We recommend that you select <Yes> and press <Enter>.
    It then discusses shadow passwords and asks "Shall I enable shadow passwords?"
    We again recommend that you select <Yes> and press <Enter>.
    It then asks you to "Enter a password for root".
    Type your root password (nothing will display on the screen) and press <Enter>.
    Next it asks "Re-enter password to verify" which you must do and press <Enter>.
    If you make a mistake and the two passwords are different you are asked to try again.
    It continues by asking "Shall I create a normal user account now?".
    We recommend that you select <Yes> and press <Enter>.
    Enter the username for your account following the rules on the screen and press <Enter>.
    Next enter the full name for the new user you have just created and press <Enter>.
    Then enter a password and re-enter it just as you did for the root user above.

  27. The next screen Debian System Configuration discusses PCMCIA and asks
    "Shall I remove the pcmcia packages?".
    We recommend that you select <Yes> and press <Enter>.
    It then asks "Do you want to use a PPP connection to install the system?".
    Since you can only use CDs select <No> and press <Enter>.

  28. The next screen Apt Configuration discusses the Debian archive and asks you to choose the method apt should use to access the Debian archive. Make sure that the first Debian CD-ROM is in the CD-ROM drive and press <Enter> to select cdrom. If you have more than one CD-ROM drive, you will be asked which CD-ROM drive to look in, select the appropriate one, and press <Enter> to continue. It will scan the CD looking for packages and after a short period it will ask if you want to scan a another CD.

    If you do not have other disks in the Woody distro or your next project is to update to "Sarge" (recommended), select <No> and press <Enter>. However, if you have other disks for the Woody distro but you do not intend to update to "Sarge" yet, then select <Yes> and scan them all. Select <No> after the last one.

  29. Next, Apt Configuration asks if you want to add another apt source?
    Since Debian Woody is no longer available on-line, select <No> and press <Enter>.

    Finally, it asks if you want to use security updates from security.debian.org?
    Again select <No> and press <Enter>.

  30. Debian System Configuration resumes and asks if you want to Run tasksel?
    Select <Yes> and press <Enter>. A task selection screen will appear. Use the up and down arrow keys to move the cursor, and the space bar to select tasks to be installed.
    Select "X window system" and "desktop environment".
    Use <Tab> to highlight <Finish> and press <Enter>.

  31. Debian System Configuration continues and asks if you want to Run dselect?.
    Select <No> and press <Enter>.

  32. At this point the Installer lists all of the packages it is about to install, with summary of upgrades, installs, deletes, etc, and the amount of disk space required. Type "Y" and press <Enter> to continue. It then asks you to insert the first Woody Install CD in the CD-ROM drive. It should already be there, so press <Enter>.

  33. A Configuring Binutils screen warning about possible kernal link failure comes up next. Press <Enter> to continue.

  34. Next, the Configuring Less screen asks Add a mime handler for "application/*"?.
    Select <No> and press <Enter>.

  35. On the Configuring Locales screen <Tab> to <Ok> and press <Enter>. On the next screen Leave alone should be highlighted. Press <Enter> to continue.

  36. On the Configuring Mfs-common screen simply press <Enter>.

  37. On the Configuring Ssh screen it asks if you want to Allow SSH protocol 2 only.
    Select <Yes> and press <Enter>, press <Enter> again at the next screen, for suid select <Yes> and press <Enter>, but for sshd server select <No> and press <Enter>.

  38. A Configuring Psfontmgr screen then asks Do you have a PostScript Printer?.
    Select the appropriate answer and press <Enter>.

  39. A Paper Size Configuration screen then asks Which papersize should be the default?. Select a4 and press <Enter>.

  40. A Configuring Gdm screen then asks you to Select the desired default display manager. Select kdm and press <Enter>.

  41. A Configuring Kdm screen then explains some of the restricted functions which have been configured at this time. Press <Enter> to continue. Further information is then displayed about Kdm's dpi settings. Again press <Enter> to continue. Even more information about Kdm and TCP ports. Again press <Enter> to continue.

  42. A Configuring Mozilla-browser screen asks Do you want FreeType2 support on Mozilla?.
    Select <Yes> and press <Enter>. Next it asks you to choose your sound daemon's dsp wrapper. Select auto and press <Enter>.

  43. A Configuring Xserver-common screen asks if you want to
    Manage X server wrapper configuration file with debconf?.
    Select <Yes> and press <Enter>.

  44. A Configuring Xserver-xfree86 screen asks if you want to
    Manage XFree86 4.x server configuration file with debconf?.
    Select <Yes> and press <Enter>.
    It then asks you to Select the desired X server driver to suit your video card.
    Choose   ati   for ATI Rage 128 or Radeon 7000-9000 cards
    tdfx   for Voodoo 3/4/5 cards
    fbdev   for any other card.
    and press <Enter>.
    PLEASE NOTE: Some ATI Radeon cards have been known to give problems using ati, in which case you should use fbdev instead, but you won't know until you find it doesn't work - see the end of this step for how to change it.

    Once you have identified the driver type, you need to specify the location of your video card. Assuming it is an AGP card the address will be PCI:1:0:0. If is anything else, accept the default given and press <Enter>.

    If will then ask if you want to Use kernel framebuffer device interface?.
    Select <Yes> and press <Enter>.

    Accept xfree86 as the X-Windows keyboard rule set by pressing <Enter>.

    Change the keyboard model to pc104 for the USA ($) keyboard or pc105 for the international keyboard, and press <Enter>.

    Unless you use a European keyboard, accept the default us layout, and press <Enter>.

    Select the mouse port as dev/psaux and press <Enter>.

    Now select the type of mouse. Most mice will be PS/2 but some mice with scroll wheels do not work well in this mode, and cause the cursor to lock up in the top right-hand corner of the screen. If you are using a mouse with a scroll wheel, we recommend that you use ImPS/2 instead.

    Next it asks Is your monitor an LCD device? If you select <Yes> it removes the "Simple" option from the next menu.

    If you know the refresh rates (as suggested in the pre-requisites section) select Advanced and press <Enter>.

    It will then ask you to Enter your monitor's horizontal sync range, i.e. 28-50 and press <Enter>.

    It will then ask you to Enter your monitor's vertical sync range, i.e. 43-75 and press <Enter>.

    It will then ask you to select the video resolutions that you would like X server to use. Use the up and down arrows move the cursor to the appropriate resolutions and press the space bar to select or de-select a resolution. Tab to <Ok> and press <Enter> when all resolutions have been selected.

    You will then be asked to Select your desired default color depth in bits.
    If there is no good reason why you shouldn't, we recommend you set it to 24 and press <Enter>.

    If you later want to change any of the above settings, you can do that from a Shell, logged in as "root" by typing "dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xfree86".

  45. It will now spend several minutes again reading the CD-ROM and installing packages, showing its progress on the screen as it does so.

    At one point it will stop and ask whether you want the American or British dictionary for ispell to which you must reply with either 1 or 2 and press <Enter> - the default is "1".

    A bit later it will stop again reported that errors were encountered during unpacking. This is OK. Press <Enter> to continue. The install process will continue and a short time later another screen is displayed saying that one or more packages failed to install and asking if you want to retry. Select <No> and press <Enter>.

    Then it introduces the exim mail system before asking a number of questions.
    In any case comprehensive information on configuring exim is in the eximdoc package and in /usr/share/doc/exim/spec.txt. Press <Enter>
    The options are then displayed. Type "5" and press <Enter> to bypass mail configuration at this time.

  46. You should now be at the end of the install process "Have fun!"..... Press <Enter> to complete the install. You will be returned to the command line "Login:" prompt. Log in as "root" using you root password and at the next prompt type "halt" to shut the system down cleanly. Switch off at the 'power down' prompt.

Post Installation
  1. Switch on. Your system should reboot directly into "X windows" with a graphical log-in prompt. Log-in as "root" and KDE should load.

  2. The KDE Desktop Settings Wizard can help you setup the KDE environment.
    • It will then ask you to choose you country and language. You'll will find New Zealand under "Asia & Oceania". The language can be left to default. Click on Next.
    • Next you must select System Behaviour - we recommend leaving it to default to KDE. Click on Next.
    • Eyecandy-O-Meter can be set to Fast to get more effects. Click on Next
    • Desktop Themes are your choice of KDE, Platinum, Redmond and Sunshine. Click on Next.
    • Instructions on how to change the settings just made. Click on Finish.

  3. Our recommendation is that now you install Debian Sarge and after that enhance your system by installing some the available Debian Packages.

Disclaimer: Amiga Auckland have prepared the above information for the use of its members based on our experiences and as such is subject to revision at any time. Amiga Auckland cannot guarantee any of the information and cannot be held accountable for any issues that may result from using it.


Copyright © 2005 Amiga Auckland Inc. All rights reserved.
Revised: September 25, 2005.